Presentations at the First Cluster Meeting on Cultural and Creative Industries in Asia 3/4 August 2012, Bangalore India
The Political Economy ofthe Korean Film Industry Focusing on the Korean Blockbuster and the Dominance of Multiplex-Sung Kyung Kim, Sungkonghoe University, South Korea
A film industry in a given society should be understood within its complex social, economic, political and cultural matrix. In doing this, I believe that we are able to explicitly explain the structural as well as instant changes of the film industry. Applying this approach to the case of Korea, I argue that the Korean film industry and its fluctuation of the industry from remarkable growth over the last decade (1998-2007) to stagnation period since 2007 was mainly brought about by diverse socio-cultural; economic and political factors such as the promotional film policies used since 1984; industrial changes caused by Hollywood direct distribution in 1987; the financial crisis of 1997; an influx of young talented people from the end of the 1980’s, and the dominance of a leisure lifestyle amougst domestic audiences in the 1990’s.
In order to examine how these factors have contributed to the changes of the Korean film industry, I would divide its history into four broad periods corresponding to changes in both film policies and political situations: 1) the regulatory period (1960-1984); 2) the promotion, or ‘cultural industry’ period (1985-2002); 3) the stabilised period with neoliberalism (2003- 2007); and 4) the stagnation period (2008-present).
Three primary concerns apply to the analysis of these four periods: 1) the complex film policies that have been constructed around the industry over the last couple of decades, and the political and ideological effects of these on Korean cinema; 2) the changes in the economic situation of the film industry brought about by Hollywood direct distribution companies entering the Korean film industry and the financial crisis in 1997; 3) the influx of a new film generation in the industry and the changes in audiences’ cinema-going experience within the current condition of the Korean film industry. In particular, this paper focuses the dominance of multiplex and changing meaning of cinema-going practices in relation to the rise of local blockbuster, especially Korean blockbuster in the beginning of 2000’s, but later I would argue that the complex structure of multiplex, its cinema-going and Korean blockbuster resulted in the stagnation of the Korean film industry in recent years.
Japanese Content on Children’s TV in India – A Preliminary Study-Ruchi Jaggi, Symbiosis Institute of Media and Communication, Pune, India
It is significant to note that the content on Indian television has changed dramatically because of the proliferation of multiple genres and narratives (privatization and liberalization that brought in satellite television) that cater to several demographic groups and varied sensibilities. It has also multiplied the cultural resources available to the Indian audiences. Children’s television is a significant offshoot of this growth. Serious and scholarly studies on television in India and more so on children’s television are very few and far between. A few studies that exist are either very dated or inspired from the Western paradigm of ‘effects research’ that was very popular once.
Indigenous Cultural Production and the Circuit of Non-Corporate Capital A Study of Cultural Hubs in Urban India- P. Radhika, Centre for the Study of Culture and Society, Bangalore, India
Heritage and the Forgetting of Globalization- Daniel PS Goh, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Singapore has been hailed as an exemplar of a colonial city that has successfully preserved its cultural and architectural heritage while pursuing re-urbanization and transformation into a global city. This essay does not seek to explain or evaluate the two decades of heritage preservation in Singapore, which is a worthy project in its own right. In this essay, I go “deeper” here into the very ontology of things that we keep calling “heritage” and ask questions that Paul Ricoeur has posed in the context of Western philosophical traditions and the possibility of history after mid-twentieth century European debacle.
What is heritage? What does it help us forget? My aim here is to seek answers under the conditions of postcolonial and globalizing hybridity. Answering these questions will help us see the cultural contradictions of Singapore’s embracement of global capital as society tussles with postcolonial legacies of multiculturalism and nationalism. Drawing on the cultural productions of state museums and heritage festivals, I will lay out my answer to the first question in object-subject terms, in which heritage is
manifested and treated as resource and commodity and as identity and ideology. For the second question, I discuss the geographies of HeritageFest 2011 and argue that we are seeing in the 2010s a shift from the remembrance of Singapore to engage globalization in the previous decades to the forgetting of globalization in order to remember a globalized Singapore as fait accompli. Understanding the semiotics of forgetting, in turn, calls for a different approach to the politics of heritage conservation.
‘Creativity &Coloniality’ Policy Matters, Identity Synergies, and Beyond- Stephen C.K. Chan, Lignan University, Hong Kong
Hong Kong’s economic structure has changed since the end of Cold War, shifting from manufacturing- to service-based. A mode of social imagination has since come to reconstitute her moments of (neo)colonial governmentality in an evolving global order. Today in Asia, any contemporary forms of locality rearticulate themselves to history with new cultural twists and political concerns. Whereas colonial moments and social experiences had marked the production of modernity under late capitalism, the hybrid social formation now weaves multiple tensions and contradictions into the historical logic of postcoloniality.
As creative industries play a new role in regional economies, small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) continue to enhance social growth. Taking up 98% of the baseline business, the productive work of the SMEs’ local meditations remains crucial. Driven by agility, talent and entrepreneurship, the emergent cultural practices offer a mapping of cross-disciplinary (identity) mediations, on the basis of which one studies the bias, strategies and conditions affecting creativity. These display a dynamics of creative synergy, with which common challenges are met (such as risk-taking ‘ventures’, innovation-led imperatives, and a social environment people deem free, resourceful and inspiring). While examining the heterogeneity, fluidity and dynamics of creativity, we shall discuss how policy matters for nurturing entrepreneurship at various stages of cultural growth under transnational capitalism.
Economic and Commercial Aspects of Lifestyle Magazines in Indonesia Annisa R. Beta, University of Indonesia, Indonesia
The focus on the speedy growth of Indonesia’s middle class and the nation’s economic development in the 21st century has helped the shift of attention of the culture industry to lifestyle magazines as a media between producers to its potential consumers. The ‘reformed’ Indonesia is now seen as a pool of opportunities for various types of profit-oriented lifestyle media to attract specific audience. This report aims to cover the historical span of lifestyle magazines in Indonesia, focusing on its commercial aspects with the influence of socio- political situations over time. It covers the types of lifestyle magazines and the circulations of the magazines along with the influential media groups to illustrate the current dynamics of the industry. This report covers the historical context to illustrate socio-cultural, economic, and ideological changes in the country, which influence the development of media industry, specifically lifestyle magazines, in Indonesia.
Creative Industries and their Discontents ‘Creative Industries in East and Southeast Asia’- Yoshitaka Mōri, Tokyo University of the Arts, Tokyo, Japan
The term ‘creative industries’ has been used to represent not only media and culture industries, but also a variety of related industries from fashion, food and design to architecture in Japan since the beginning of the 2000’s. Although the discussion over the creative industries made by Florida and others has been introduced into academia, the term itself has been primarily administrative: this has often been applied in state economic policy, urban planning and diplomacy, but strangely it has rarely been used in public discussion. The paper examines, firstly, the way in which the idea of creative industries was accepted and appropriated within the Japanese context and used in cultural, economic and even diplomatic policy in relation to the ‘Cool Japan’ project that the Japanese government has promoted. Secondly, the way in which the term has created ideological discursive formation in new capitalist economy will be illustrated. Finally the working conditions in creative industries is discussed, as it sometimes offers a new life style, which is currently characterized as ‘nomad’ work, with a positive connotation while it often invites an
exploitative labor market by mobilizing the youth people’s desire to be ‘creative’. Through the examination of the creative industries and the related policy in Japan, emerging formations of labor/leisure, state/capitalism and culture/politics/economy will be argued. The shift from the culture industry which Adorno and Horkheimer once criticized to the creative industries that the government promoted in an uncritical manner will demonstrate the transformation of power, capitalism and culture.
Asian Cultural Content in India-S.V.Srinivas, Centre for the Study of Culture and Society, Bangalore
Animating ‘Local Culture’ the Character Goods Industry in Taiwan and Hong Kong-Teri J Silvio, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
For the past three years I have been conducting an ethnographic research project on how original character goods (figurines, logo characters, cartoons, etc.) are designed, marketed, and consumed in Taiwan and Hong Kong.
The main goals of this project were 1) to trace connections (or disconnects) between how designers create (the impression of ) unique personalities for cartoon/ toy characters and commercial brands, and how they conceive of and enact their own social identities, including the role worker in the creative industries, as well as gender and national identities; and 2) to examine how collectors of character goods constructed personal relationships with the characters through practice and discourse; and how they conceived the ontology of those characters.
This paper will compare Taiwan and Hong Kong in terms of how the creative industries are structured, how designers forge their careers, and ideologies regarding the relationship between “local culture” and creativity. I will then suggest some ways that the project might be expanded to look at character goods design and consumption in other Asian sites, and at international networks of design and collection.
A Study of Circulation of Manga and Anime in India-Shilpa Tanna, The English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad, India
Despite an increasingly palpable popularity of East Asian (East Asian here is limited to Japanese and Korean and in some cases Taiwanese) popular cultural products (manga, anime, video-games, live action series etc.) in India, there does not seem to be a proportionate market/outlet for these products. This leads one to presume that the circulation of these products in the country must be happening mainly through “illegal”/unofficial channels. Given the democratization of media products brought about by digital technologies in the recent times, it is perhaps safe to assume that piracy has played a prominent if not the most crucial role in this phenomenon.
It is the aim of my project to explore the various channels, both “legal”/official and “illegal”/unofficial,through which these products circulate in the Indian market and to see if the above supposition that piracy in fact plays a significant role in the wider circulation and rising popularity of these products in India holds true and can be proven beyond doubt.
Subversive entrepreneurship and the changing creative ecology in Hong Kong-Oi Wan Lam, Lingnan University
Through the in-depth case studies of three cultural and creative SMEs in Hong Kong, namely DayDream Nation (DN), a fashion house, PIP, a performance and entertainment production house and GOD, a product design house and retailer, we examine various aspects of creative entrepreneurship in Hong Kong against the context of the post 1997 neo-liberal economic crisis and the shift of public discourse in favour of creative industries.
When defining their business’ cultural mission, the creative entrepreneurs among SMEs are higher critical of the highly monopolized economy, government bureaucracy and the increasing restriction on freedom of expression under mainland Chinese influence. Their cultural and political discontents derived from their experience and often time struggle in spatial clustering, cross-sectorial creative community building and freedom of expression has paradoxically, become a distinctive character for their creative expression that shapes the ecology of local cultural and creative industries and develops a niche market in the highly competitive regional and global market.
Space of production and production of space – A comparative case study between the cultural creative industries in India and Hong Kong-Chan Ka‐yi, Lignan University, Hong Kong.
Under rapid growth of urbanization in metropolitan cities, urban renewal and land utilization policy is taking a major position to the daily lives. This research is to collect information from individual cases in the cultural creative industries in India and Hong Kong for further study of cultural policy in the notion of land use.
The Condition of Indian Animation Industries between Global Economy and Local Culture– Yukie Hirata, Dokkyo Ujiversity, Japan
This research was aimed to draw the conditions of Indian animation industry, especially two major aspects . First, the role of the Indian animation industry in global animation production. The study examines the relationship between the animation industries in India and those in the US or Japan.
A Comparative Research on the Asian Blockbuster(s) and Multiplex in Asia: A Holistic Approach to the Film Industry, Text and Cinemagoing– Sung Kyung Kim, Sungkonghoe University, South Korea
As a Korean academic who has been specifically researching the Korean blockbuster, the research starts from the cases of the latter and searches for the possibility of Asian blockbusters. By adopting comparative perspective, this research will not remain only in the case study of Korean blockbuster, but rather expand its research scope to other local film industries, namely India and China, in order to move towards the possibility of regional blockbuster.
CIDASIA Resources and Documents
Creative Industries, The Way Forwad– Dr.S.V.Srinivas,CIDASIA, CSCS, Dr.P.Radhika,CIDASIA, CSCS and Ashish Rajadhyaksha, Senior Fellow, CSCS with inputs from K.Sravanthi
This study is a part of a larger CIDASIA initiative to research the area of what we call ‘culture industries’ that includes both ‘creative industries’ and ‘cultural industries’ (including crafts and legacy industries), focussing on the increasing areas of overlap between the two. The initiative attempts to assess the viability of international and government policies for cultural and creative industries and thus lay the groundwork for a hitherto unprecedented intervention of philanthropic organizations in the domain. We specifically focus on culture industries through the node of ‘livelihoods’ that we see as inextricably tied to this sector.
Economy, Politics, Culture Industry Case Studies of the Kannada and Bhojpuri Culture Industires– Dr.P.Radhika, CIDASIA, CSCS with inputs from S.V.Srinivas and Sravanthi Kollu, CIDASIA, CSCS, Sushmitha S. and B.Shrikanth
A report on the Kannada Culture Industry.
When The Host Arrived A Report on the Problems and Prospects for the Exchange of Popular Cultural Commodities with India
Diminishing Spaces for Cultural Performance in Bangalore- P.Radhika
Business of Culture in India- S.Ananth
What is that Star Media Cultural Action in the Claiming of Space-Lam Oi Wan
‘Hong Kong’ A New Page for Affective Mobilization-Lam Oi Wan and Ip Lam Chong
Citizen media action and the transformation of indecency and obscenity censorship in Hong Kong- Lam Oi Wan
This paper explores the reconfiguration of local civic forces on issues related to morality, youth protection, sex and sexuality, press freedom and human rights in a wider colonial and post-colonial political context in the light of the recent history of indecency and obscenity regulation in Hong Kong.
The ‘Nation-State’ and Transnational Forces in South India-Takako Inoue
Comparative Aspects of Christian Music in India, China, and Russia-Takako Inoue
Popular Music ; Intercultural Interpretations-Takako Inoue
Path from India, Path from Japan-Takako Inoue
La reforme de la tradition des devadasi-Takako Inoue
Gender and Modernity-Takako Inoue
Between Art and Religion ; Bhagavata Mela in Thanjavur-Takako Inoue
State Carnivals and the Subvention of Multiculturalism in Singapore- Daniel PS Goh
From Colonial Pluralism to Postcolonial- Daniel PS Goh
Capital and the Transfiguring- Daniel PS Goh